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Small mouth bottles are difficult to clean and to fill with a water filter, or a drink mix.Some scouts and adults use a bladder system, such as Platypus or Camelbak, for easier access.
The basic rule is wear one set of clothes and pack one change of clothes unless weather is a major consideration.Save weight by building your own First Aid kit with a Ziplock bag and supplies.Water Bottles: Two wide mouth plastic water bottles (32 ounce size) that fit inside the larger side pocket of most packs are great but their are lighter options.Waterproof Pack Cover needs to be large enough to protect items strapped to the exterior of the pack.A couple of large garbage bags may be suitable for summer hiking in the Sierras, but if multiple rainy days are anticipated a dedicated pack cover is better.Note: sleeping bags should not be stored in the stuff-sack at home, as this will mat the filling, causing a reduction in loft, and thus warmth.
Bags are best stored in “cloth storage bags” or left laying as loose as possible.
Sleeping Pad & Pillow: A closed-cell type foam pad (e.g., insolite or the accordion style by Z-Rest work well) is good to keep out the cold and to preserve the sleeping bag.
Shorter length pads can be purchased, or longer pads can be cut, to reduce the amount of bulk and weight (head to knee length is sufficient).
It is even possible to be less than the “Low End Weight”, which is what you should be striving to make.
Clothing low-6.5 high-9.5 Personal Gear low-9.9 high-17.5 Tent Mate Gear low-3.1 high-4.1 Troop Gear (12 hikers) low-3.1 high-3.1 Optional Items low-0 high-6.0 Total Pack Weight low-22.6 pounds high-40.2 pounds (this is crazy high!
Arbitrary numbers (like 30% of his body weight) are interesting starting points for discussion, but the real determination is how much he can carry on the practice hikes.